In a paper just published in the ESR, Verde and Tol study the implications of a carbon tax across the income distribution. The paper by and large confims previous work (Callan and others being the most recent). A carbon tax is markedly regressive. It disproportionally hits poorer households. That said, the scale of the carbon tax is modest (euros per week) and small relative to income taxes and benefits. That means that the distributional damage can easily be repaired (should our dear leaders be so inclined).
The paper adds to previous research by also quantifying the indirect effects of a carbon tax. (This was last done by Cathal O’Donoghue for 1987.) A carbon tax increases the price of energy (direct effect) and thus of everything else (indirect effects). The paper shows that the indirect effects are small relative to the direct effects, and thus hardly affect the regressivity of the tax. The paper also shows that a carbon tax abroad would have a similar impact on Irish households again.